190 "Birth of the Death Ray,": Dr. Solar-Man of the Atom # 16, written by Paul S. Newman and drawn by Frank Bolle (Gold Key Comics, June 1966), reprinted in Dr. Solar-Man of the Atom, vol. 2 (Dark Horse Books, 2005).
191 "the number of Gillette razor blades they could melt through": They All Laughed: From Light Bulbs to Lasers: The Fascinating Stories Behind the Great Inventions That Have Changed Our Lives, Ira Flatow (Harper Perennial, 1992).
192 "Superman removes the thick cataracts that have blinded a companion": "A Matter of Light and Death," Action # 491, written by Cary Bates and drawn by Curt Swan (DC Comics, Jan. 1979).
192 "Eight years later, Dr. Stephen Trokel": Excimer Lasers in Ophthalmology , edited by David S. Gartry (Informa Healthcare, 1997).
193 The South Pole Terror, Lester Dent (under the pen name Kenneth Robeson) (Street and Smith, 1936); reprinted in Doc Savage # 11 (Nostalgia Ventures, 2007).
194 "robots would break free": Follies of Science: 20th Century Visions of Our Fantastic Future, Eric Dregni and Jonathan Dregni (Speck Press, 2006).
194 "The Challengers were four adventurers": Showcase # 6, written by Dave Wood and drawn by Jack Kirby (DC Comics, Jan.-Feb. 1957); reprinted in Challengers of the Unknown Archives, vol. 1 (DC Comics, 2003).
195 "The Challengers' challenge": "ULTIVAC is Loose!," Showcase # 7, written by Dave Wood and drawn by Jack Kirby (DC Comics, Mar.-Apr. 1957); reprinted in Challengers of the Unknown Archives, vol. 1 (DC Comics, 2003).
197 "In 1946, scientists at the University of Pennsylvania": Quantum Legacy: The Discovery That Changed Our Universe, Barry Parker (Prometheus Books, 2002).
197 "a Bell Labs scientist, Russell Ohl": Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age, Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson (W. W. Norton and Co., 1997).
199 "Semiconductors make convenient light detectors": Ibid.
200 "smoke detector": The Way Things Work, David Macaulay (Houghton Mifflin, 1988); How Everything Works: Making Physics Out of the Ordinary, Louis A. Bloomfield (John Wiley and Sons, 2008).
201 "The Shadow, who in reality is Lamont Cranston, wealthy man-about-town": The Shadow Sc.r.a.pbook, Walter B. Gibson (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979).
201 Death Stalks the Shadow, author unknown (original air date October 9, 1938, on the Mutual Network).
202 "when different chemical impurities are added": Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th edition, Charles Kittel (John Wiley and Sons, 1995).
205 "the junction between the p-type and n-type": Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age, Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson (W. W. Norton and Co., 1997).
205 "Solid-state semiconductor diodes": Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd edition, S. Sze (Wiley-Interscience, 1981); Electronics: Circuits and Devices, 2nd edition, Ralph J. Smith (John Wiley and Sons, 1980).
206 two regions of an identical semiconductor are separated by a very thin insulator": Ibid.
206 "In 1939, Russell Ohl, a scientist at Bell Labs, was studying the electrical properties of semiconductors": Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age, Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson (W. W. Norton and Co., 1997).
207 "a light-emitting diode (LED) is a pn junction": Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd edition, S. Sze (Wiley-Interscience, 1981); Electronics: Circuits and Devices, 2nd edition, Ralph J. Smith (John Wiley and Sons, 1980).
208 "In the past thirty years the luminosity of these devices": "From Transistors to Lasers to Light-Emitting Diodes," Nick Holonyak Jr., MRS Bulletin, 30, 509 (2005); "The Quest for White LEDs. .h.i.ts the Home Stretch," Robert F. Service, Science 325, 809 (2009).
211 "the invention of the transistor": The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution, T. R. Reid (Random House, 2001).
211 "the field-effect structure": Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age, Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson (W. W. Norton and Co., 1997).
214 "In 1958, just a year after the Challengers": Ibid.
215 "Estimates of the number of transistors": Astronomy: The Solar System and Beyond, 2nd edition, Michael A. Seeds (Brooks/Cole, 2001); "One Billion Transistors, One Uniprocessor, One Chip," Yale N. Patt, Sanjay Patel, Marius Evers, Daniel H. Friendly, and Jared Stark, IEEE Computer (September 1997).
215 "the transport of a single electron can be detected": "The Single Electron Transistor," M. A. Kastner, Rev. Mod. Phys., 64, 849 (1992); "Artificial Atoms," Marc A. Kastner, Physics Today (January 1993).
215 "a complex literature using an alphabet consisting of only two letters": The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution, T. R. Reid (Random House, 2001).
217 "Flash memory devices add a second metal electrode": "A Floating-Gate and Its Application to Memory Devices," D. Kahng and S. M. Sze, The Bell System Technical Journal 46 (1967), p. 1288; "Introduction to Flash Memory," R. Bez, E. Camerlenghi, A. Modelli, and A. Visconti, Proceedings of the IEEE 91 (2003), p. 489; "Reviews and Prospects of Non-Volatile Semiconductor Memories," F. Masuoka, R. Shirota, and K. Sakui, IEICE Transactions E 74 (1991), p. 868.
217 "What's the point of the second metal layer": "Volatile and NonVolatile Memories in Silicon with Nano-Crystal Storage," S. Tiwari, F. Rana, K. Chan, H. Hanafi, W. Chan, and D. Buchanan, IEDM Technical Digest (1995), p. 521.
219 Amazing Stories (Teck Publications, December 1936).
219-220 "Wrist phones that are capable of video transmission": "Bell Labs Reports Progress on 'd.i.c.k Tracy' Watch," APS News 8, 6 (June 1999); "Yesterday's Dreams and Today's Reality in Telecommunications," Robert W. Lucky, Technology in Society 26 (2004), p. 223.
221 "devices characterized as 'spintronic'": "Spintronics," David D. Awschalom, Michael E. Flatte, and Nitin Samarth, Scientific American (June 2002).
222 "'giant magnetoresistance'": "Giant Magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/ (001)Cr Magnetic Superlattices," M. N. Baibich , J. M. Broto, A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau, F. Petroff, P. Eitenne, G. Creuzet, A. Friederich, and J. Chazelas, Physical Review Letters 61 (1988), p. 2472; "Enhanced Magnetoresistance in Layered Magnetic Structures with Antiferromagnetic Interlayer Exchange," G. Binasch, P. Grunberg, F. Saurenbach, and W. Zinn, Physical Review B 39 (1989), p. 4828.
223 "In any real metal wire there will be defects": Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th edition, Charles Kittel (John Wiley and Sons, 1995).
223-224 "Imagine a flow of electrons perpendicular": "Spintronics," David D. Awschalom, Michael E. Flatte, and Nitin Samarth, Scientific American (June 2002).
225 "magnetic sensors on hard drives that employ another quantum mechanical phenomenon-tunneling": "Frontiers in spin-polarized tunneling," Jagadeesh S. Moodera, Guo-Xing Miao, and Tiffany S. Santos, Physics Today (April 2010).
226 "the first (expensive) transistor radio": The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution, T. R. Reid (Random House, 2001).
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227 X: The Man with the X-ray Eyes, written by Robert Dillon and Ray Russell and directed by Roger Corman (Alta Vista Productions, 1963).
246 "'spooky action at a distance'": Einstein: His Life and Universe, Walter Isaacson (Simon and Schuster, 2007).
246 "Books have been written over the question": And I'm not kidding! See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information: Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Computation, edited by D. Bouwmeester, A. K. Ekert, and A. Zeilinger (Springer-Verlag, 2000); Entanglement: The Greatest Mystery in Physics, Amir D. Aczel (John Wiley and Sons, 2002); A Shortcut Through Time: The Path to the Quantum Computer, George Johnson (Vintage Books, 2003); Quantum Computing, 2nd edition, Mika Hirvensalo (Springer-Verlag, 2004); Teleportation: The Impossible Leap, David Darling (John Wiley and Sons, 2005); The G.o.d Effect: Quantum Entanglement, Science's Strangest Phenomenon, Brian Clegg (St. Martin's Griffin, 2006); The Age of Entanglement: When Quantum Physics Was Reborn, Louisa Gilder (Alfred A. Knopf, 2008).
246 "the two electrons' wave functions must remain 'entangled'": A Shortcut Through Time: The Path to the Quantum Computer, George Johnson (Vintage Books, 2003).
247 "recent experiments in 'teleportation'": Teleportation: The Impossible Leap, David Darling (John Wiley and Sons, 2005).
247 "experiments . . . concerning two entangled quantum ent.i.ties": "Experimental Entanglement Swapping: Entangling Photons That Never Interacted," Jian-Wei Pan, Dik Bouwmeester, Harald Weinfurter, and Anton Zeilinger, Physical Review Letters 80, 3891 (1998), "Experiment and the Foundations of Quantum Physics," Anton Zeilinger, Reviews of Modern Physics 71 (1999), p. S288.
248 "from a 1998 issue of the adventures of the Justice League of America": JLA # 19, written by Mark Waid and drawn by Howard Porter (DC Comics, 1998).
249 "'cavorite'": Discovered by Dr. Cavor as described in The First Men in the Moon, H. G. Wells (George Newnes, 1901).
249 "how much energy it takes to lift": Conceptual Physics, Paul G. Hewitt (Prentice Hall, 2002).
249 "every chemical reaction . . . on the order of an electron Volt": Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles, Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnick (John Wiley and Sons, 1974).
250 "prototype jet packs have been able to keep test pilots aloft": Jet-pack Dreams: One Man's Up and Down (But Mostly Down) Search for the Greatest Invention That Never Was, Mac Montandon (Da Capo Press, 2008).
250 Iron Man, written by Mark Fergus, Hawk Ostby, Art Marc.u.m, and Matt Holloway and directed by Jon Favreau (Marvel Studios, 2008).
251 "According to the World Health Organization": "How Hard Is It to Convert Seawater to Fresh Drinking Water?" Ethan Trex, Mental Floss (August 2009).
251 "Global consumption of energy, which in 2005": Energy, Vaclav Smil (Oneworld Publications, 2006).
252 "The surface of the Earth receives": Ibid.
252 "present production capacity": "High Growth Reported for the Global Photovoltaic Industry," Reuters (Mar. 3, 2009); "A Solar Grand Plan," Ken Zweibel, James Mason, and Vasilis Fthenakis, Scientific American (Jan. 2008).
253 "two scientists, Johannes Bednorz and Karl Muller": The Path of No Resistance: The Story of the Revolution in Superconductivity, Bruce Schechter (Simon and Schuster, 1989).
256 "'thermoelectrics'": Thermoelectrics Handbook: Macro to Nano, edited by D. M. Rowe (CRC, 2005).
257 "extract electrical power from random vibrations involves nanogenerators": "Self-Powered Nanotech," Zhong Lin w.a.n.g, Scientific American (January 2008); "Nanogenerators Tap Waste Energy to Power Ultrasmall Electronics," Robert F. Service, Science 328, 304 (2010).
258 "In a battery, making use of essentially a reverse electrolysis process": Batteries in a Portable World: A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-Engineers, 2nd Edition, Isidor Buchmann (Cadex Electronics, 2001); The Battery: How Portable Power Sparked a Technological Revolution, Henry Schlesinger (Smithsonian, 2010).
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