IWoz_ Computer Geek to Cult Icon

Steve Wozniak

Part 4

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infinite loop Often also called an "endless loop," this is a piece of coding that accidentally or by design repeats indefinitely. Often also called an "endless loop," this is a piece of coding that accidentally or by design repeats indefinitely.instruction This is a key term in computer technology. It is an order created by a computer program delivered to a computer processor. Each instruction, at its most basic level, is just an order for the computer to do something (like "add" or "subtract") with the Is and Os that make up computer data. See a.s.sembler language; register. This is a key term in computer technology. It is an order created by a computer program delivered to a computer processor. Each instruction, at its most basic level, is just an order for the computer to do something (like "add" or "subtract") with the Is and Os that make up computer data. See a.s.sembler language; register.interrupt This refers to a signal that comes from a device attached to a computer-or from a program running on that computer-that causes the CPU system software to stop and pay attention to what should be done next. Almost all computers today use interrupts. That is, they run whatever program they're running instruction by instruction until they are "interrupted" by a device or another program. For instance, if you hit the G key while a program is running, the system will pause, notice that the keyboard has interrupted it, and run the program that will display "G" on-screen. This refers to a signal that comes from a device attached to a computer-or from a program running on that computer-that causes the CPU system software to stop and pay attention to what should be done next. Almost all computers today use interrupts. That is, they run whatever program they're running instruction by instruction until they are "interrupted" by a device or another program. For instance, if you hit the G key while a program is running, the system will pause, notice that the keyboard has interrupted it, and run the program that will display "G" on-screen.kilobyte A unit of computer storage equal to approximately 1,000 bytes of data-more precisely, 2 to the tenth power, or 1,024 bytes. A unit of computer storage equal to approximately 1,000 bytes of data-more precisely, 2 to the tenth power, or 1,024 bytes.logic gate A single computer circuit that has several points of input but only one point of output. It is an elementary building block of a circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. A single computer circuit that has several points of input but only one point of output. It is an elementary building block of a circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output.At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two conditions-low (0) or high (1)-defined by the voltage level. The state, 0 or 1, changes often as data is processed. For example, the AND gate is called that because if 0 is false and 1 is true, the gate acts the same way as the standard AND operator in Boolean algebra.With an OR gate, the output is true (or 1) if either or both of the inputs are true (or 1). If both inputs are false (0), then the output is false (0).The XOR (exclusive-OR) gate acts in the same way as the logical "either/or." The output is "true" if either, but not both, of the inputs is "true." The output is "false" if both inputs are "false" or if both inputs are "true."A logical inverter, sometimes called a NOT gate to differentiate it from other types of electronic inverter devices, has only one input. It reverses the logic state.The NAND gate operates as an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. It acts in the manner of the logical operation "and" followed by negation. The output is "false" if both inputs are "true." Otherwise, the output is "true."The NOR gate is a combination OR gate followed by an inverter. Its output is "tine" if both inputs are "false." Otherwise, the output is "false."The XNOR (exclusive-NOR) gate is a combination XOR gate followed by an inverter. Its output is "true" if the inputs are the same, and "false" if the inputs are different.Using combinations of logic gates, complex operations can be performed. In theory, there is no limit to the number of gates that can be arrayed in a single device. But in practice, there is a limit to the number of gates that can be packed into a given physical s.p.a.ce. Arrays of logic gates are found in digital integrated circuits (ICs). As IC technology improves, the physical s.p.a.ce it takes up becomes smaller and smaller. That means faster chips in smaller packages-and increasing computer power at decreasing prices. See Moore's Law Moore's Law.machine code The basic-level language that a computer can understand, this refers to a stream of binary digits-Os and Is-or bits. See bit; byte. The basic-level language that a computer can understand, this refers to a stream of binary digits-Os and Is-or bits. See bit; byte.memory The electronic holding place for instructions and data that your computer needs to reach quickly. Typically referred to as "RAM" (short for random-access memory), memory is typically located on a set of microchips located physically close to the computer processor. When you turn a computer off, all information held in RAM disappears. The electronic holding place for instructions and data that your computer needs to reach quickly. Typically referred to as "RAM" (short for random-access memory), memory is typically located on a set of microchips located physically close to the computer processor. When you turn a computer off, all information held in RAM disappears.Moore's Law Intel founder Gordon Moore in 1964 made the following now-famous observation: that due to improvements in manufacturing, every eighteen months engineers would be able to double the number of transistors on a chip. Moore's Law has held true to this day. Intel founder Gordon Moore in 1964 made the following now-famous observation: that due to improvements in manufacturing, every eighteen months engineers would be able to double the number of transistors on a chip. Moore's Law has held true to this day.motherboard The physical layout inside a computer that contains its basic circuitry and components. The motherboard most typically contains the CPU, the main system memory, the basic input/output system (BIOS), a group of expansion slots, and additional interconnection circuitry. Also sometimes referred to as the "main board" and the "system board." The physical layout inside a computer that contains its basic circuitry and components. The motherboard most typically contains the CPU, the main system memory, the basic input/output system (BIOS), a group of expansion slots, and additional interconnection circuitry. Also sometimes referred to as the "main board" and the "system board."NOR gate gate See See logic gate. logic gate.OR gate See See logic gate. logic gate.oscilloscope A laboratory instrument commonly used to display and a.n.a.lyze the waveform of electronic signals. On a screen, the device draws a graph of voltage over time. A laboratory instrument commonly used to display and a.n.a.lyze the waveform of electronic signals. On a screen, the device draws a graph of voltage over time.processor The logic circuitry in a computer that responds to a computer instruction. Generally people use the term "processor" to refer to a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Another common term for the CPU is "microprocessor." See The logic circuitry in a computer that responds to a computer instruction. Generally people use the term "processor" to refer to a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Another common term for the CPU is "microprocessor." See CPU CPU.PROM Short for programmable read-only memory, this is a type of computer chip with data that can only be changed with a special machine. Such a machine, often called a "PROM programmer," actually blows a fuse on the chip-hence the term "burning a PROM." See Short for programmable read-only memory, this is a type of computer chip with data that can only be changed with a special machine. Such a machine, often called a "PROM programmer," actually blows a fuse on the chip-hence the term "burning a PROM." See EEPROM; EPROM. EEPROM; EPROM.RAM Short for random-access memory, this is the type of memory chip a computer uses for short-term storage and calculation. This kind of "memory" is not to be confused with the permanent storage a hard disk or CD-ROM drive provides. RAM chips lose their contents whenever you power down the computer. See Short for random-access memory, this is the type of memory chip a computer uses for short-term storage and calculation. This kind of "memory" is not to be confused with the permanent storage a hard disk or CD-ROM drive provides. RAM chips lose their contents whenever you power down the computer. See memory. memory.register In a computer processor, a register is a holding place for any kind of data, including a storage address, individual characters, or a computer instruction. For example, a computer instruction might command that the contents of two registers be added together. A register is typically large enough to hold a 32-bit instruction, though there are smaller registers, such as half-registers, in some computer designs. In a computer processor, a register is a holding place for any kind of data, including a storage address, individual characters, or a computer instruction. For example, a computer instruction might command that the contents of two registers be added together. A register is typically large enough to hold a 32-bit instruction, though there are smaller registers, such as half-registers, in some computer designs.resistance Denoted by the representation R, this is the opposition a given substance offers to the flow of current. Measured in ohms. Denoted by the representation R, this is the opposition a given substance offers to the flow of current. Measured in ohms.resistor An electronic component that controls the flow of current in a circuit by resisting, or turning away, electricity. Typically, resistors are mounted on a printed circuit board or built into a chip. An electronic component that controls the flow of current in a circuit by resisting, or turning away, electricity. Typically, resistors are mounted on a printed circuit board or built into a chip.ROM Built into every computer, ROM, short for read-only memory, is computer memory that contains data that can only be read. It is designed to store data permanently, and not be erased or modified by a user. A ROM chip contains the program that allows a computer to be restarted and still remember its basic settings every time. Unlike the computer's RAM (random-access memory), the data on this chip stays intact even when you turn the power to the machine off. The ROM is typically powered by a small long-life battery. See Built into every computer, ROM, short for read-only memory, is computer memory that contains data that can only be read. It is designed to store data permanently, and not be erased or modified by a user. A ROM chip contains the program that allows a computer to be restarted and still remember its basic settings every time. Unlike the computer's RAM (random-access memory), the data on this chip stays intact even when you turn the power to the machine off. The ROM is typically powered by a small long-life battery. See EEPROM; EPROM; PROM; RAM. EEPROM; EPROM; PROM; RAM.signal Most simply, this is an electric current or field used to carry data from one place to another. A direct current (DC) signal that can be switched on and off is a simple form of carrying information-it's how the early telegraph signals worked. A more complicated signal consists of an alternating current (AC) to carry more than one stream of data at a time. Most simply, this is an electric current or field used to carry data from one place to another. A direct current (DC) signal that can be switched on and off is a simple form of carrying information-it's how the early telegraph signals worked. A more complicated signal consists of an alternating current (AC) to carry more than one stream of data at a time.sine wave The most familiar alternating current waveform, varying with time. A waveform is a pictorial representation of how alternating current (AC) varies over time. The most familiar alternating current waveform, varying with time. A waveform is a pictorial representation of how alternating current (AC) varies over time.slot See See expansion slot. expansion slot.storage Refers to the place in a computer where data is held in electromagnetic or optical form for access by a computer processor. The term "primary storage" generally refers to the place in memory where data is held; the term "secondary storage" generally refers to permanent data holding on hard disks, tapes, and other storage media. Refers to the place in a computer where data is held in electromagnetic or optical form for access by a computer processor. The term "primary storage" generally refers to the place in memory where data is held; the term "secondary storage" generally refers to permanent data holding on hard disks, tapes, and other storage media.transistor A tiny device for regulating electronic signals. Invented by three scientists at Bell Laboratories in 1947, this was a key invention that enabled computers and computerized devices. Before transistors, vacuum tubes were in use-but they quickly became obsolete after the transistor was widely available for the purpose of regulating current (voltage). Transistors act as incredibly tiny and effective switches for electronic signals. See vacuum tube. A tiny device for regulating electronic signals. Invented by three scientists at Bell Laboratories in 1947, this was a key invention that enabled computers and computerized devices. Before transistors, vacuum tubes were in use-but they quickly became obsolete after the transistor was widely available for the purpose of regulating current (voltage). Transistors act as incredibly tiny and effective switches for electronic signals. See vacuum tube.transistor circuit See See transistor. transistor.vacuum tube Also known as an "electron tube," a vacuum tube was once commonly used to amplify electronic signals. It is now mostly obsolete, having been replaced in electronics by the transistor. See Also known as an "electron tube," a vacuum tube was once commonly used to amplify electronic signals. It is now mostly obsolete, having been replaced in electronics by the transistor. See transistor. transistor.

Acknowledgments.

First, I must thank my parents for helping me find my own values and for a.s.sisting my education.This book could not have happened without believers in the publishing industry. John Brockman did a splendid job in finding our publisher, W. W. Norton. We lucked out to get the legendary nonfiction editor Angela von der Lippe on this book. Her true interest was part of what I needed to get this project done. Countless others had important roles as well.More thanks than I can ever give should go to Gina Smith, who had the drive to create this book and who met with me on countless occasions to put it all together. Just having a schedule and a purpose and prodding made all the difference. We would get together and speak stories into recorders, and go over and over the paragraphs to get the right sound. Thanks also to Michele Earl for a lucky and unusual encounter that led to my meeting Gina.I have to thank those responsible for my successes in life. To Miss Skrak for seeing so much in me. To Mr. McCollum for finding so much valuable education beyond the school he worked for. To Steve Jobs for wanting to do Great and Big things. To Randy Wig- gington, Chris Espinoza, Dan Sokol, Bill Fernandez, and the Homebrew Computer Club members for the whole appreciation of acomputer for people. To all my HP friends, including Stan Mintz and Peter d.i.c.kinson, for a great environment in which an engineer could develop. Most of all, thanks to Allen Baum, who was involved in some way in so many of the big steps in my computer life. And for his parents who appreciated jokes and humor and had such good values in life. My memory of them still brings tears.I must thank my first wife, Alice, without whom Apple would never have happened for me; Candi, my second wife, for the most wonderful creations of Jesse, Sara, and Gary; and my third wife, Suzanne, for Hard Rock Cafes and bungee jumping and for being so wonderful and decent.Friends who made this possible for me, digging up needed photos and reminding me of stories, included Laura and Dan and Alex. Sharon was the most loyal in all cases, always looking out for me and making sure needed things got done.

Gina thanks her friend Michele Earl for introducing her to Steve at a rock concert. Within a week of our meeting, the iWoz iWoz book proposal was in to our phenomenal agent, John Brockman. book proposal was in to our phenomenal agent, John Brockman.Gina thanks the exceptional team at Norton, including editor Angela von der Lippe, her a.s.sistant, Lydia Fitzpatrick, and all the others who helped along the way. Thanks also to Keith Blate and David Street, Steve Wozniak fans and editors who spent much time reading the earliest drafts of this book.Gina also wants to thank her wildly supportive family and friends, without whom this book could not have been completed: Tops on the list are her ever-patient husband, Henry, and their small son, Eric. Special thanks go to her beautiful and intrepid late mother, Emilia Sladjana Djuran Ferguson, for teaching her that, in America, it always pays not to be afraid to talk to the big shots! And to her father, David A. Malby of Riverdale, New York, Gina owes the highest thanks for his support, reading and writing suggestions, and encouragement through the years. Thanksalso to Gina's half-sister, Isabella, her husband, Roger, and Gina's much-loved nieces, Victoria and Alexandra. Thanks also to Maria Lopez and Gina's in-laws Lisa and Henry Schaefer for their babysitting support during this enormous project. And finally, Gina is forever grateful to those who have stood beside her the longest: Sister Laura Saucedo and Brother Keith Prewitt. Love and peace to you all.

Steve and Gina both thank the two restaurants they dominated weekly while doing fifty-six two-hour interviews. The first half of the book was completed at Pearl's, in the West Portal District of San Francisco. The second was completed at The Hick'ry Pit in Campbell, California, where we especially thank our waitress Racquel and her boss, Brian, for bending the rules for us every now and then.

Thank you, readers. We hope you enjoy Steve's adventure as much as he enjoyed telling it and Gina enjoyed hearing it!

Pictures [image]

People used to go to Caltech games just to see my dad play. Here he is in uniform. (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) [image]

Here's my mom and dad's wedding picture. (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) [image]

They tell me I was reading at three.

(Photograph courtesy of MargaretWozniak) [image]

My dad and the three of us siblings. From left: me, Mark, and Leslie. (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) [image]

Here I am at eleven, in Little League. (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak)

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At eleven, I was one of the youngest ham radio operators in the world. But I got bored. No one my age to talk to! (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) (Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak)

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Here I am at thirteen showing off my science-fair-winning Adder/Subtractor.(Photograph courtesy of Margaret Wozniak) [image]

The Apple II-my creation-is the computer that changed the world. So they tell me. (Photograph courtesy of Wikipedia) [image]

The Apple III was the computer that was designed by committee. Apple pushed it like crazy, but the majority of people still wanted the Apple II. (Photograph courtesy of (Photograph courtesy of Wikipedia) Wikipedia) [image]

U.S. President Ronald Reagan awarded Steve and me the U.S. Technology Medal in 1985. (Photograph courtesy of The White House) (Photograph courtesy of The White House)

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Here I am the day we opened up the US Festival in 1983. It lost money but I enjoyed every minute of it. (Photograph courtesy of Dan Sokol) (Photograph courtesy of Dan Sokol)

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Here I am with my second wife, Candi, and then Van Halen star David Lee Roth. We were at the party before one of Van Halen's US Festival appearances. (Photograph (Photograph courtesy of Dan Sokol) courtesy of Dan Sokol)

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Singer Emmylou Harris is a longtime friend of mine. She sang at my wedding and played at my US Festival. (Photograph courtesy of Dan Sokol) (Photograph courtesy of Dan Sokol)

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Here ! am with my second wife, Candi. She is the mother of my three children. (Photograph courtesy of Dan Sokol) (Photograph courtesy of Dan Sokol)

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Steve Jobs and me sharing a laugh at Macworld 2005.(Photograph courtesy of Alan Luckow)

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